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Friday, April 13, 2012

Negeri Sembilan



Negeri Sembilan, one of the 13 states that constitutes Malaysia, lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia, just south of Kuala Lumpur and borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south.

The name is believed to derive from the nine districts or negara (now known as luak) settled by the Minangkabau, a people originally from West Sumatra (in present-day Indonesia). Minangkabau features are still visible today in traditional architecture and the dialect of Malay spoken.

Unlike the hereditary monarchs of the other royal Malay states, the ruler of Negeri Sembilan is known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar instead of Sultan. The election of the Ruler is also unique. He is selected by the council of Undangs who lead the four biggest districts of Sungai Ujong, Jelebu, Johol, and Rembau, making it one of the more democratic monarchies.

The capital of Negeri Sembilan is Seremban. The royal capital is Seri Menanti in the district of Kuala Pilah. Other important towns are Port Dickson and Nilai.

The Arabic honorific title of the state is Darul Khusus.


The Minangkabaus from Sumatra settled in Negeri Sembilan in the 15th century under the protection of the Malacca Sultanate, and later under the protection of its successor, the Sultanate of Johor. As Johor weakened in the 18th century, attacks by the Bugis forced the Minangkabaus to seek protection from their homeland. The Minangkabau ruler, Sultan Abdul Jalil, obliged by sending his near relative, Raja Melewar. When he arrived, he found that another royal, Raja Khatib had already established himself as ruler. He declared war against Raja Khatib and became the ruler of Negeri Sembilan. The Sultan of Johor confirmed his position by granting the title Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan (He Who is Highest Lord of the Nine States) in 1773. After Raja Melewar's death, a series of disputes arose over the succession. For a considerable period, the local nobles applied to the Minangkabau ruler in Sumatra for a ruler. However, competing interests supported different candidates, often resulting in instability and civil war.

In 1873, the British intervened militarily in a civil war in Sungai Ujong to preserve British economic interests, and placed the country under the control of a British Resident. Jelebu followed in 1886, and the remaining states in 1895. In 1897, when the Federated Malay States (FMS) was established, Sungai Ujong and Jelebu were reunited to the confederation of small states and the whole, under the old name of the Negeri Sembilan, was placed under a single Resident and became a member of the FMS.

The number of states within Negeri Sembilan has fluctuated over the years, the federation now consists of six states and a number of sub-states under their suzerainty. The former state of Naning was annexed to Malacca, Kelang to Selangor, and Segamat to Johor.

Negeri Sembilan endured Japanese occupation in World War II between 1941 and 1945, and joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and became a state of Malaysia in 1963.

Perlis


Perlis is the smallest state in Malaysia. It lies at the northern part of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and has Satun and Songkhla Provinces of Thailand on its northern border. It is bordered by the state of Kedah to the south. Perlis was called Palit (Thai: ปะลิส) by the Siamese when it was under their influence.
Perlis Indera Kayangan has a population of 227,025 as of 2010.

Kangar
The capital of Perlis is Kangar and the Royal capital is Arau. Another important town is Padang Besar, at the Malaysian-Thailand border. The main port and ferry terminal is at the small village of Kuala Perlis, linking mostly to Langkawi Island. Perlis has a famous snake farm and research centre at Sungai Batu Pahat and Gua Kelam and Perlis State Park are tourist attractions. .


Perlis was originally part of Kedah, although it occasionally came under rule by Siam or Aceh. After the Siamese conquered Kedah in 1821, the British felt their interests in Perak to be threatened. This resulted in the 1826 Burney and Low Treaties formalising relations between the two Malay states and Siam, their nominal overlord. In the Burney Treaty, the exiled Kedah sultan Ahmad Tajuddin was not restored to his throne. Sultan Ahmad and his armed supporters then fought unsuccessfully for his restoration over twelve years (1830–1842).

In 1842, the Sultan finally agreed to accept Siamese terms, and was restored to his throne of Kedah. However, Siam separated Perlis into a separate principality directly vassal to Bangkok. Sayyid Hussain Jamalulail, the paternal grandson of a Hadhrami Arab Sayyid immigrant and maternal grandson of the Sultan of Kedah, became the first Raja of Perlis. His descendants still rule Perlis, but as rajas, instead of as sultans.

As with Kedah, the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 forced Siam to relinquish its southern Malay vassal states to Great Britain. The British installed a Resident in the Perlis Royal capital of Arau. Perlis was returned to Siam in World War II as a reward for Siam's alliance with Japan, but this brief annexation ended with the Japanese surrender. After World War II, Perlis returned to British rule until it became part of the Malayan Union, then Federation of Malaya in 1957 and lastly Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

Since 2000, the Raja or hereditary monarch has been Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin. He was the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 2001 to 2006. Tuanku Syed Faizuddin Putra was the Regent of Perlis during the five-year period when Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin was Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Chief Executive or Menteri Besar is Datuk Seri Dr Md Isa Sabu of Barisan Nasional.

The Coat of Arms of Perlis consists of a sturdy green wreath of padi, indicating the wealth of the kingdom and the chief economic activity of the people. The shield in the center represents the pride of the people. Inside the shield is a ring of golden rice surrounding the name "Perlis" written in the Jawi script.

History Of Malaysia - 2008 - 2009

Early 2008 saw the KLSE Composite Index reached its highest level in history, more than 1500 points. Pak Lah launched Sabah Development Corridor (SDC) and Sarawak Corridor of Renewal Energy (SCORE). Proton Saga replacement model was introduced. Professor Dr. Othman is Malaysia's first woman to lead the field of space science and astrophysics. Siti Norma was the first woman appointed as a judge at the DIFC - Dubai International Financial Centre Court. Robiah Abdul Ghani was appointed Pahang police chief. Nicol David dominate the world in sports squash. Crude oil prices and how sudden a rogue speculative activities cause global stock market plunge. However, the government took effective measures, including injection of economic stimulus package to bring it out of recession. Election of age are the 12th, the BN win by a nose, the five states won by the opposition alliance. In Perak, three assemblymen out of the opposition agreement, allowing the BN to form the government. The chaotic scene after the opposition coalition holds regular street parade. Pak Lah launched the MACC. March 2009, Pak Lah handing over power to his deputy, Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak. YAB Tan Sri Muhyidin Yassin was appointed Deputy Prime Minister. U.S. President Barack Obama was among the first telephone Najib congratulated on his appointment as Prime Minister of Malaysia ke6. Upon becoming prime minister, he made several surprise visits to some areas for people comprehend their own problems. 1Malaysia concept was launched, followed by the Amanah Saham 1Malaysia for all Malaysians. Kuala Lumpur was named City of Islamic Culture by ISESCO. Remove the proton model 'Exora' while Toyota models' Viva Elite. He announced to use key performance indicators (KPI) for monitoring the performance of the ministers, are reviewed every six months. Then he announced six National Result Areas (NKRA). He started an official visit to several ASEAN countries to strengthen bilateral relations. A visit to China is the 35th anniversary of Malaysia-China friendship since pioneered Tun Razak - Chairman Mao. ECER Special Economic Zone was launched. Malaysia's first submarine, KD Tunku Abdul Rahman, arrived to strengthen the defense of national waters. Malaysia F1 racing car model that will join the race next year dipertonton in general. Harvard School of Business, Boston will make research on the effectiveness of Malaysia Najib interesting out of the economic downturn. Meanwhile, Najib's wife, Datin Seri Rosmah Mansor YABhg spread PERMATA network throughout the country, but was praised and emulated African countries.